“绝大多数的DeFi协议都会将保险服务看作为协议服务的重要组成。唯有这样,才能真正解决用户的后顾之忧。”

 

去中心合约保险

不少DeFi协议遭受的各种攻击,有闪电贷套利攻击,也有利用代码漏洞的资金窃取。DeFi已经成为“科学家”们的盛宴,进一步提醒了参与者们不要投入无法承受损失的资金参与当前的DeFi。在DeFi的征途中,保险是解决这一问题的重要拼图。

DeFi要发展,需要保险这样的基础设施。如果只是靠DeFi协议用户自行去购买保险,这是不现实的。最好的解决方案之一是,由DeFi协议从协议的交易费用或挖矿收益中抽取一部分,存入项目的资金储备池,而这个资金储备池的一部分用于购买协议全体保险,即便一开始不能给全部资产投保,能保护其中一定比例的资产也会让用户安心很多。如果一开始这样也不现实,项目方也可以利用保险市场成为承保人,为自己的协议用户提供相对低价的承保,可以增强用户的信心,也可以减轻负担。

最终来说,绝大多数的DeFi协议都会将保险服务看作为协议服务的重要组成。唯有这样,才能真正解决用户的后顾之忧。这种未来的可能性,对于保险赛道的项目来说,意味着巨大的机会。越来越多的DeFi项目为了吸引用户,增强护城河,会将其收益的一部分置入保险市场,这意味着保险需求的增加,保费收益规模的增长。此外,考虑到DeFi保险市场的更好的透明度和更好的流动性,DeFi相对于传统行业的保险市场会有更高的渗透率。

 

NXM

Nexusn Mutual利用以太坊的强大功能,使人们无需保险公司即可共同承担风险。Nexus Mutual采用的是风险共担模式,背后有一个风险共担池。资金池由持有NXM token(Nexus Mutual 的原生代币)的社区成员管理资金池并投票决定具体某一笔理赔的有效性。

Nexus Mutual的业务流程里面主要有三种用户角色,分别是风险评估者,保险购买者和索赔评估者。

风险评估者(也是保险提供者),经过评估以后判断某个合约的安全性比较好,就会把资金以NXM的形式质押。当有其他人购买这个合约保险的时候,就可以获取对应的保费收入;而当有索赔发生的时候,用质押的NXM会被用来支付对应的保险金额。

保险购买者需要选择投保的合约,币种,金额和日期,然后用NXM来支付保费(如果用户用以太坊币ETH或者稳定币DAI支付,系统会自动帮用户购买NXM)。如果风险事件发生,用户需要提交索赔申请,由索赔评估者来评审,通过以后才能获得赔偿。

索赔评估者通过质押NXM来参与索赔的评估,需要达成>70%比例的“一致性“判断。如果评估者的评估结果和大家的“一致性”判断相同,那么评估者就获取一定激励;相反的话,收到的惩罚是质押的NXM会被锁定更久时间。如果大家的评估结果没有达到70%的一致性要求或者投票数量没有达到最小要求,那么就到升级到全体成员(包括非索赔评估者)进行投票。

Nexus Mutual通证

从上面的流程可以看到,Nexus Mutal的用户在风险评估,购买保险,索赔评估的流程都使用到了NXM,包括社区治理,用户也是通过NXM实现。NXM 基本上承接了Nexus Mutual项目的所有价值实现。

NXM使用了连续通证模型Continuous Token Model,用户在官网购买和赎回NXM,并且价格是由项目资金情况计算出来的。

Nexus Mutual的定价和资金池模式

Nexus Mutual的合约保险定价由专门的计算公式确定,主要有以下决定因素:合约质押的NXM数量,保险金额,保险时间。如果质押的NXM数目越多,保险金额越少,保险时间越短,那么保费就会越便宜。

保险资金池的资金来源主要是用户质押的NXM。当某个合约发生赔偿的时候,合约里面质押的NXM首先被销毁来支付赔偿。如果质押的NXM不能完全支付赔偿,那么资金池里面的其他资金用来做赔偿。所以,虽然用户针对不同的合约质押NXM,但是保险资金池本质上最终是所有合约共享的。

Nexus Mutual合规框架

Nexus Mutual在英国注册为自由互助社(discretionary mutual),每个成员按照法律规定有互助社相关比例的所有权和提供保证的义务。自由互助社在英国不是一个保险公司,而是成员相互提供保证的组织,所以不需要遵从英国所有的保险监管政策。目前Nexus Mutual只遵循英国金融互助协会(Association of Financial Mutuals)的相关规定,并考虑成为其正式会员。

根据英国相关法律,Nexus Mutual可以向世界其他国家用户提供服务,但是其他国家也有当地的一些合规限制。在研究了不同国家和地区的法律之后,Nexus Mutual目前只对部分国家地区开发,并且需要对会员做KYC。

 

COVER

COVER将是一个改变游戏规则的产品,激励你保护自己免受智能合约、DeFi和加密整体相关的风险。Cover是点对点的保险市场。Cover的保险运行机制采用保险双代币模式,其长期目标是构建任何事物的保险市场,不过当前来说,其重心是DeFi市场。它通过bonding curve模式来设定保险价格。

所谓的保险双代币运行机制,主要是指Cover保险市场上的同质化代币CLAIM和NOCLAIM代币。同质化代币就是可互换的代币。这种保险双代币模式是Cover协议运作的核心。


COVER是COVER Protocol的ERC-20原生治理代币,并有以下用例:

  • 治理: COVER代币持有者可以对社区提交的提案进行投票,这些提案将决定协议的未来发展;
  • 风险保护挖矿: 用户可以通过为COVER Protocol提供流动性以赚取COVER代币;
  • 索赔管理: 代币持有人可以在索赔管理流程中使用COVER代币来验证索赔或使索赔无效。

当流动性提供者将抵押品存入Cover智能合约时将生成通用风险保障代币。每份Cover智能合约均指定其保障的协议,首选抵押品,存款金额以及有效期。


这些通用风险保障代币与其抵押品1:1挂钩。流动性提供者每存入一单位的抵押品(譬如1DAI)都将获得两种代币:CLAIM与NOCLAIM。流动性提供者可以选择将此两种代币出售给风险保障服务的提供者与需求者。CLAIM代币代表了当风险保障合约包括的安全隐患于保期内发生时提取对应抵押品的权利。NOCLAIM代币则代表了当没有风险保障合约包括的安全隐患于保期内发生时提取对应抵押品的权利。

保险提供者如果判断某个合约的安全性比较好,将抵押品DAI存入铸造该合约的NOCLAIM / CLAIM令牌。1CLAIM代币+1NOCLAIM代币≈1抵押品(例如DAI)

  • 如果发生索赔,1CLAIM代币≈1抵押品(例如DAI),而1NOCLAIM代币=0;
  • 如果到期未发生索赔,1NOCLAIM≈1抵押品(例如DAI),1CLAIM代币=0

保险购买者直接去Balancer交易所购买对应合约的CLAIM令牌,风险事件发生以后,可以在Cover官网发起索赔申请,申请通过以后,就可以获取CLAIM数目相同的DAI。

流动性提供商将抵押品DAI存入铸造合约的NOCLAIM / CLAIM令牌,然后加上额外的DAI将NOCLAIM/DAI 和 CLAIM/DAI添加到Balance里面的流动性池子。

Cover的索赔管理

COVER 的索赔机制 COVER 代币持有人可以投票决定索赔的有效性。如果认定有效,将会提交给索赔有效性委员会审计,委员会由专业审计机构组成,通过的条件是超过 50% 的审计机构同意。 如果 COVER 代币持有人投票认定索赔无效,可以通过缴纳一定资金发起强制性索赔。强制性索赔将直接提交给索赔有效性委员会进行判定。

Cover通证模型

Cover项目的通证COVER主要用途是项目治理,用户在购买保险和质押铸造的时候用的是DAI。COVER的价格和项目资金状况没有直接关系,主要由市场的供需价格确定。COVER第一年的Token供应是9万枚,第二年1万枚,以后每年减半。Cover项目除了COVER token以外,还有CLAIM和NONCLAIM token,不同的合约有不同的Token,这些Token在Balance里面可以自由交易。CLAIM和NONCLAIM 的价格是由市场交易确定,反映的是合约的风险程度,如果市场认为某个合约风险升高,这个合约的CLAIM的价格就上升,NONCLAIM价格就下降;反之,这个合约的CLAIM的价格就下降,NONCLAIM价格就上升。

Cover的定价和资金池模式

Cover的保险定价反映在CLAIM token的价格,价格越低,保费就越低,而CLAIM的价格是由市场供需来决定的。

在COVER里面没有资金池的概念,而是用户之间的博弈来确定保费的高低。同时,由于每个合约的CLAIM/NONCLAIM token不一样,不同合约的理赔不会相互影响。

Cover合规框架

Cover官网信息没有显示Cover注册成为保险互助社或者类似机构,所以没有对成员进行KYC的要求。

 

NXM和Cover对比

用户流程对比

相比Nexus Mutual,Cover没有索赔评估者的角色,因为Cover用了社区投票的方式。社区投票和索赔评估者投票相比,会更倾向于从项目长远利益出发,避免故意拒绝合理索赔的情况,因为Cover的价值和赔付是否发生没有关系;而索赔评估者持有的NXM的价值和资金池有关系(下面一章详细介绍),赔付发生以后,资金池下降,NXM的价值会下降,所以有一定动机去拒绝赔付合理索赔。

另外,Cover增加了流动性提供者的角色,这是因为Cover引入了NOCLAIM / CLAIM令牌,需要为他们提供流动性。流动性提供者会分享BAL交易费用(目前是1%),并且能获取Cover挖矿的收益(目前在50%-200%之间),但是也会有无常损失的风险。根据Cover产品白皮书[2],流动性提供者的无常损失最坏情况在12.5%左右。

通证模型比较

Nexus Mutual用户购买保单以后,无法将保单转给其他人,而Cover通过引入CLAIM和NONCLAIM token,让用户购买的保单可以交易,提高了用户的产品体验,更容易让用户接受。另外,由于COVER token和项目资金状况没有直接关系,避免了1.3中提到的索赔评估者和保险购买人的潜在利益冲突问题。

合规框架比较

Cover因为不需要对成员进行KYC,同时也没有国家和地区的限制,所以获取客户方面肯定比Nexus Mutual更有优势。但是从长期发展的角度来说,Nexus Mutual一开始就以合规的方式开展业务,以后合规风险会比较小。

总的来说

Nexus Mutual可以看作是传统保险的区块链化,而Cover则可以认为是在区块链上面重新构造了保险。从业务颠覆和创新的角度来说,Cover更胜一筹。保险是一个万亿美元的巨大市场,从目前的市值来看,Cover和Nexus Mutual还有几百上千倍的增长空间,我们期待着他们成长为真正的保险行业巨头。

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