“波卡是一条公链, 目标是解决以太坊可扩展性、速度以及费用等问题”

结论

 

1. 波卡的创始人 Gavin 博士是以太坊的联合创始人,并且奠定了智能合约的基础。

2. Web3基金会资助优质项目, 打造波卡生态, 经过Web3基金会资助的dApp项目超过250项, 全部的项目都会经波卡上市。

3. 波卡目的是解决以太坊可扩展性、速度以及费用等问题。

4. 波卡完成平行链连接后, TPS速度将扩展到每秒 10 万至 100 万笔交易。

5. 波卡可以跨网络桥连接到比特币和以太坊等外部网络。

6. 波卡创建了Substrate 的区块链框架, 能为开发者减少大量成本, 并且能在波卡生态上运行, 和共同分享波卡的安全性

7. Substrate 有一个 Wasm 智能合约平台,可以兼容任何的语言构建智能合约

8. 波卡的共识机制 NPOS (提名权益证明)改良了POW和POS共识机制

9. 波卡创立Kusama 测试网, 能为dApp在波卡上线前做更多前瞻实践,并为波卡小区带来新的思路。

10. 波卡生态拥有众多有潜力的项目,当中包括ChainX、Polkaswap、Acala等明星项目。

11. 波卡的DOT代币总量没有上限, 通胀率和收益率有计算公式, 而波卡期望通胀率10%, 年化收益率20%。

波卡背景

创办人

Polkadot 的创始人 Gavin 博士作为曾经的以太坊 CTO,是最了解以太坊技术的人之一, Gavin 博士是以太坊黄皮书的撰写者, 奠定了智能合约开发的基础, 发明了专门面向智能合约的开发语言 Solidity, 并且创建了 Web3 基金会。

 

Web3基金会

Web3基金会是由Gavin 博士于于瑞士建立的基金会, 用于开发、部署和维护Web3.0, Web3基金会的资源丰富,它们通过资助优质项目实现资源的管理和利用,其中主要是资助构建去中心化网络基础设施的研究开发团队,主要集中Web3.0技术栈中,去中心化软件协议领域的技术研发和应用,这些资助对Web3.0生态系统产生了长期的积极影响。 目前Web3基金会已经资助了分布在20多个国家的共100多个项目,资助的这些项目都基于波卡substrate建立,经济模型设计也大多类似于波卡网络,可支持链上升级。

波卡的技术特点

波卡是一条公链, 目标是解决以太坊可扩展性、速度以及费用等问题, 目前而言, 比特币的 TPS 大约为 7,而以太坊大约为 15,这导致其交易体验非常不好,速度慢,费用高,这在之前的挖矿高峰期尤其明显。而波卡(Polkadot)为了解决这些问题, 创建了以下技术。

 

异构分片区块链

所谓的异构,其实就是不同区块链的「联合」。相比之下,以太坊的分片是同构的,都是以太坊区块链的一部分。在波卡中,有一条中心链,它连接了所有的区块链,也就是「中继链」。而连接到「中继链」的则是平行链, 平行链是在波卡生态(Polkadot 和 Kusama 网络)中并行运行的各类单独的 Layer1 区块链。Layer1 区块链应用场景非常多, 目前包括:

  • DeFi
  • 游戏
  • 数字钱包
  • 凭证
  • 身份验证
  •  Oracles 喂价
  • 智能合约
  • 物联网

这种中继链 + 平行链的架构是Polkadot可以获得可扩展性的原因,多条链可以并行处理交易,而不用在一条道路上排队等候处理。如此一来,相对于当前的以太坊, Polkadot可以有更高吞吐量,更快的速度以及更低的费用。当Polkadot 有了平行链之后,速度将扩展到每秒 10 万至 100 万笔交易。Polkadot 的跨链可组合性允许任何类型的数据或资产在平行链之间发送,从而允许更多新的用例和应用程序的出现。平行链还可以使用跨网络桥连接到比特币和以太坊等外部网络。Polkadot 被设计成一个 Layer0 的多链网络,这意味着中继链为目前多达几百个以平行炼形式连接到 Polkadot 的 Layer1 区块链提供来自 Layer0 中继链的安全和互操作性。

Substrate 区块链框架

Substrate 是一个创建加密货币和其他去中心化系统的区块链框架, 包含各种工具、各种支持的基础架构,是一种区块链编程框架,专门为构建区块链而设计。Substrate是 Polkadot 项目的重要组成部分, 目前而言每个创建新区块链的团队都需要从头开始实现所有网络和共识代码, 还需要密码学家、安全研究人员、网络工程师、开发人员等人才, 但使用Substrate 构建新项目时, 只需开发少量代码, 然后推出, 减少大量成本。其次使用Substrate开发后能够在项目发布后立即开始在 Polkadot 上运行, 从而可以利用 Polkadot 提供的共享安全性和互操作性, 当出现漏洞时, 由于Polkadot亦是由Substrate 构建, 因此能获得快速反馈。

目前而言Polkadot 生态系统中的大部分区块链是建立在 Substrate 上, Substrate 有一个 Wasm 智能合约平台, 因此可以使用任何兼容的语言构建智能合约。 使用Substrate作框架开发dApp能减低大量开发成本,而且兼容智能合约, 并且能在Polkadot生态上运行, 安全性共同分享, 当Polkadot生态愈大时, 使用Substrate作为开发的吸引力愈强烈。

共识机制

Polkadot的共识机制是 NPOS (提名权益证明)它混合了BABE和GRANDPA。在传统的PoW机制中,人们通过工作量证明来获得记账权,而PoS机制中,人们需要质押代币,质押者也是验证者,利益相关者,他们需要验证平行链的状态转换证明,需要根据这些证明的有效性生产中继区块。

BABE(Blind Assignment for Blockchain Extension)是运行在验证节点之间的区块生产机制,它确定新区块的生成者。在某种程度上,BABE可以跟Ouroboros Praos对比,不过在链选择规则和插槽时间调整上存在较大差异。BABE会根据质押代币量以及波卡随机周期为验证者分配生产区块的插槽。

GRANDPA(GHOST-based Recursive ANcestor Deriving Prefix Agreement)是波卡的“最终性工具”,服务于波卡的中继链。只要2/3的节点是诚实的,且在异步设置中可以处理1/5的拜占庭节点,它在部分同步的网络中就可以正常运作。GRANDPA在链上达成共识(相对于区块上),这里有利于其更快达成最终性,即便是面临长期的网络分区或其他网络故障情况。

 

验证者通过质押DOT代币来维持中继链的安全,他们验证来自Collator的证明,也与其他的验证者达成共识。为了防止验证者的合谋,基于验证者质押的DOT代币数量,他们是被随机选择出来的。如果他们如实报告所分配的平行链的状态变化,他们会获得DOT奖励;如果他们不诚实(被其他节点检查发现),他们的质押代币会被消减。

在波卡中,有一类角色称为渔夫。他们也能够举报这些不诚实的验证者,同时渔夫也可以是收集者、验证者。验证者不会将所有交易都发布到波卡的中继链上,发布的只是状态变化证明。因此,中继链对平行链上的实际交易并不知情,不过他们可以验证当前状态是否有效。此外,验证者会随机变化,不会固定在某个平行链上,它不是平行链的一部分,而是中继链的一部分。

 

波卡上还有Nominator和Collator的角色,这也是参与中继链的重要角色。Nominator不直接成为验证者,但可以通过选择验证者来参与验证,来获得DOT的奖励。当然,如果所选择的验证者被惩罚,他们也会被消减。Collator收集用户在平行链上的交易,并为验证者提供状态转换证明来维护平行链。Collator为中继链维护全节点,也为特定平行链维护完整节点。

 

Kusama 测试网

Kusama 是Polkadot的先行版,是Polkadot所有功能的一个大型试验场,是一个比较轻松的、有任何想法都可以大胆去实现的网络, 而Polkadot就是比较严肃正式一些的网络, 两者底层代码是一样的, Kusama 是一个有小区的网络,到现在为止已经有 350 个验证人(包括很多国内外知名的投资机构、staking 机构都在参与)和数不清的提名人通过 staking 在安全运行着整个网络。因此Kusama 作为Polkadot的测试网, 能为Polkadot 的网络升级和迭代更有预期性,同时也可能给行业带来更多前瞻实践,为小区带来新的思路。并且Kusama 的代币是有价值的, 目前流通市值为37亿美金, 因此能吸引最新,最有创意的dApp在Kusama 测试。

 

 

波卡明星项目

目前经过Web3基金会资助的dApp项目超过250项[1],以下为波卡较为有名的项目。

4.1 ChainX.

ChainX是做跨链资产转移的,通过ChainX,就可以完全去中心化地将BTC、ETH和EOS等资产转到其他公链上流通。

ChainX也推出了挖矿模式——映像即挖矿。用户只需要充值或者映像币资产,就会根据资产值转化为相应算力,然后就能获取收益了。

 

4.2 Polkaswap

Polkaswap是专为波卡生态而设计的去中心化交易所,可以直接跨链交易。像Uniswap一样, 但Uniswap只交易以太坊上的代币。Polkaswap相对于Uniswap用户,较低Gas的费用,并且可以交易的资产也更多。

Polkaswap的代币是PSWAP。在Polkaswap上,每笔交易都会收取0.3%的交易费,然后用于回购PSWAP,并铸造新的PSWAP以奖励流动性提供者。

 

4.3 Acala

Acala是目前波卡平台里DeFi的一哥,被称为未来波卡生态的DeFi 中心。Acala 是一个与以太坊兼容的金融应用程序平台,可以使用智能合约或内置协议,具有开箱即用的跨链功能和强大的安全性。Acala涉及领域:稳定币、衍生品、去中心化交易所等。Acala获得波卡的重要贡献者Laminar支持,也获得了Gavin Wood的站台背书。有人认为Acala = MakerDAO + Compound + Uniswap + SNX。总结而言可以说波卡的DeFi想象空间有多大,Acala的想象空间就有多大。

 

4.4 Stafi

Stafi是一个中间件协议,目标是为Staking资产提供流动性。一个项目的流动性和安全性是冲突的。比如当用户锁仓的时候很可能遇到行情暴跌而无法出手。而Stafi做的就是在Staking的同时,又能获得100%的流动性。当用户在Staking时使用Stafi协议,就能获得1:1对应的债券——Rtoken,而Rtoken可以自由流通而完全不受影响。

 

4.5 Bifrost

Bifrost是一个为Staking提供流动性的项目。用户可以随时将正在staking的资产给1:1地兑换出来,从而获得Staking 收益和流动性。Bifrost在早期完成了一轮 60 万美元的种子轮融资,投资者不乏波卡早期投资人及以及Staking业务相关的机构,未来可能会在生态及业务上予以支持。

波卡代币经济机制

 

DOT 是波卡网络的原生代币主要用途有:

  • DOT 服务于网络治理:持有 DOT 则有机会获得提案的投票权,可以参与提案的决议,例如决定网络费用、增加或移除平行链等。
  • DOT 服务于网络安全:DOT 还服务于支撑波卡网络的共识机制。为了达成共识,参与者需要质押 DOT 代币。这是 DOT 最重要的作用,它担负了波卡网络的安全性。
  • DOT 服务平行链:为了成为波卡网络的平行链,必须在有一段时间内绑定一定量的DOT。在绑定期间,DOT会被持续锁定。这意味着,如果波卡生态受到开发者的青睐,那么, 为了竞争有限的位置,DOT会变得抢手。

​​​​​​​从以上的机制看,DOT 的代币机制跟其波卡网络有深度绑定,跟其治理、安全和用途都有深入的结合。如果波卡生态得到发展,那么其治理、安全以及用途都会产生对 DOT 的极大需求。也就是说, DOT 的价值本身跟波卡生态发展本身相关度很高。

在发币方面, 与以太坊中的ETH类似,DOT代币总量没有上限,目前发行总量为10亿枚,在通胀率上Polkadot希望是每年10%, 而抵押代币的平均年化收益方面,细节如下:

 

  1. 当抵押率 < 50%,抵押平均年化收益率 > 20%,鼓励更多代币抵押;
  2. 当抵押率 = 50%,抵押平均年化收益率 = 20%;
  3. 当抵押率 > 50%,抵押平均年化收益率 < 20%,鼓励赎回而不鼓励抵押。

 

 

以下为通胀率和收益率计算公式

概念定义

抵押率 x = 抵押DOT的总数 / DOT发行量
年通胀率 R = (年末DOT发行量 – 年初DOT发行量) / 年初DOT发行量

 

定量参数

预期抵押率 x_ideal = 0.5
预期年化收益率i_ideal = 0.2
抵押率为0时的通胀率 R0 = 0.025
衰减率 d = 0.05

 

计算公式

通胀率 R1 = R0 + x * (i_ideal – R0 / x_ideal)
通胀率 R2 = R0 + (i_ideal * x_ideal – R0) * 2 ^ ((x_ideal – x) / d)
通胀率 R = min(R1, R2)
年化收益率 i = R / x

示例数据计算

抵押率 x = 0.4,年化收益率 i = 0.2125,也即 21.25%
抵押率 x = 0.5,年化收益率 i = 0.2,也即 20%
抵押率 x = 0.6,年化收益率 i = 0.0729,也即 7.29%

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