关键见解

◉ Radicle是一个去中心化的代码协作堆栈,可与Web3原生金融激励工具相结合。
◉ Radicle Link将Git版本控制扩展到点对点网络层。
◉ 如果该项目能成功激励其发展,那么采用、DAO协调和价值获取仍是需要克服的挑战。

开源代码合作的简史

自由和开放的软件可以追溯到20世纪50年代,当时学术界主要是开发和传播代码的驱动力。为了推动人类进入数字时代,学术界的知识共享方式奠定了自由软件运动的基础;人们应该可以自由地运行、研究和重新发布代码的原始拷贝和修改拷贝。

自由软件运动认为专有软件是不道德的,而开源软件运动则更关注开放项目的实现。无论你认同哪一个阵营,开源软件都是我们今天所使用的数字基础设施中不可或缺的部分。

Source: xkcd

为了维护和合作开源项目,贡献者需要解决方案来存储和传播代码,以及一个分布式版本控制系统(DVCS)来建议和提交新的内容(例如,Git,Mercurial)。此外,辩论可能的变化的环境(如GitHub评论)和补偿开发者的激励结构(如补助金、就业)也支持生态系统的发展。

像GitHub这样的集中式仓库是扩展Git功能的平台,并将用户的仓库托管在有墙的数据库中。这些平台通过使代码协作变得容易,大大促进了开源运动。然而,作为集中式的中介机构,审查制度成为一个问题。GitHub有能力取下它认为合适的任何使用其服务的行为,比如根据(任意的)政府制裁,删除核心龙卷风现金库和合作者的账户。

由于许多项目的运作都依赖于开源代码,错误的取缔会对GitHub用户和代码库产生重大影响。进入Radicle:去中心化的代码协作来维护和激励开放软件项目。

Radicle,简而言之

Radicle成立于2018年,旨在开发一个抗审查的代码协作栈。该协议的最初实现是建立在IPFS上的,但一些技术上的复杂问题限制了其速度和功能。2019年,IPFS被Git的版本控制系统取代。Git与在有向无环图(DAG)上运行的点对点网络层相搭配,形成了Radicle Link,即现在支撑该堆栈的协议。

点对点代码协作堆栈的内部结构


Radicle Link可以通过多个前端访问,包括Radicle Web界面和命令行界面(CLI)。”同行”(用户)选择其他同行和 “项目”(Git存储库)来关注。在这样做的时候,他们会保留与他们感兴趣的对等体和项目相关的数据的本地副本,并与他们各自的对等体闲谈(”复制”)这些数据。

为了帮助数据的可用性,种子节点是永远在线的节点,可以跟踪和传播项目。随着网络的逐步分散,项目组托管的种子节点作为新协议用户的入口。同伴们使用推拉法同步数据,选择一个种子节点来上传和获取变化,而不是利用八卦复制层。任何人都可以运行一个种子节点。然而,除了托管私人存储库或连接到网络并为数据的可用性做出贡献之外,没有任何激励措施。

从可用性的角度来看,Radicle使用 “集市 “模式进行协作,并使用公钥加密技术来代替用户账户。代码库是开源的,但每个项目没有一个单一的观点,用户的观点取决于它的信任关系,或社会图谱。通过对所有工件(代码、拉动请求等)使用公钥加密技术,开发人员可以自己验证每个工件的真实性,与集中式的替代方案相比,创造一个明显更安全的工作流程。

内容审核由网络用户处理。同伴们可以选择取消对同伴的关注,将被取消关注的同伴的数据从他们对一个项目的主观看法中删除。然而,在项目创建者和指定的维护者(”代表”)的基础上,存在着项目的典型(主要)观点。要签署对经典分支的补充(”补丁”),需要有法定的代表人公钥。虽然每个代表的历史可能基于他们各自的社交图谱而有所不同,但经典视图将显示所有先前接受的更改。

与以太坊整合

去中心化的代码协作,以及为公共软件项目融资的工具,是Radicle愿景的关键组成部分。2021年,Radicle推出了一个选择性的Ethereum集成,以促进去中心化组织的代码协作。通过Radicle Orgs,团队可以通过将规范的项目元数据锚定到以太坊来确保项目状态的不可更改性,并通过Gnosis Safe多签名来协调项目。此外,该集成通过应用内支付流为项目合作者引入了一个激励层。

滴水不漏(Drippin n’ Tippin)
Radicle Drips是一个独立的协议,用于在以太坊上进行流式支付。Drips于2022年1月推出,构成了Radicle上支付流的基础,但作为一个独立的协议,它有更多的功能。创造者可以设计NFT门槛的 “会员资格”,用户通过一次性或经常性的付款获得好处。利益可能包括项目管理的投票权,以及在未来访问私人加密的Radicle存储库的权利。 此外,”分裂 “功能会自动将收到的资金的一定比例重新分配到以太坊地址;认为在项目合作者之间自动分配收到的赠款。

RAD代币

Radicle的以太坊集成引入了ERC-20 RAD代币,以及一个集体治理和协议所有权的经济模型。RAD主要是一个治理代币。代币持有者可以对与Radicle的以太坊集成和Radicle财政部有关的提案进行提议和投票,总代币供应量的一半在推出时被分配到了Radicle财政部。

财政部分发代币,以支持通过Radicle Grants和Radicle Ecosystem Growth Fund(EGF)资助的社区活动。Radicle Grants支持高达50万美元的开源技术项目,这些项目有助于开发Radicle Link以及补充该堆栈的Web3基础设施。另一方面,EGF每半年为吸引网络用户的项目和活动提供高达50万美元的资金。截至2022年10月,核心团队主要负责选择和资助这些项目,但正如下面的路线图部分所讨论的,全部权力将在2023年过渡到RAD持有人的DAO。

其他重要的RAD分配包括20%的总代币供应给私人投资者,19%给创始团队。2021年2月,Radicle完成了由Galaxy和NFX领导的私人销售,Balaji Srinivasan和Meltem Demirors等人也参与其中。每项分配在四年内归属。

关于价值累积,以太坊整合的合同被设计为产生费用,以RAD支付,这些费用将在财政部累积。RAD持有人将从折扣或豁免的费用中受益。在推出时,某些合同产生了协议费用,但后来在2022年3月取消了这一做法,以吸引更多的用户使用该协议。目前,该协议没有产生价值。未来可能会应用收费机制,具体由管理部门决定。

网络牵引力

Radicle网络

大部分Radicle网络的采用是在去年发生的。在2021年9月之前,自2018年网络成立以来,Radicle上启动了42个公共项目。仅在2021年9月至2022年9月期间,就有超过400个公共项目启动。此外,2022年8月出现了215%的大幅月度增长。这一增长很可能与龙卷风现金制裁和Github拆解相吻合,导致开发者在Radicle上寻求抗审查的庇护。


值得注意的是,Radicle网络用户可以选择运行自己的种子节点和自我托管的私人存储库,而不连接到网络的其他部分。因此,这类项目在公共数字中没有体现。私有资源库的数量估计有数千之多。

同时,Radicle上的开发者活动正以接近指数的速度增长。自网络成立以来,所有仓库的代码提交数量总共不到6000个。

Radicle Drips

自2022年1月推出以来,Radicle Drips的采用率相对较低,可能是因为其代码库仍在审计之中。总的来说,有86个独特的用户与该协议进行了积极互动。使用最多的功能是Splits,有58个独特的发送者。值得注意的是,Solidity核心团队正从其他两个用户那里接收滴水,并在10个贡献者之间分割资金。

此外,17个NFT-gated社区已经在Radicle Drips上推出。一个例子是Rad Radio,这是Radicle和Livepeer的合作项目。用户只需一次性支付5DAI,就可以通过Drips和Livepeer网络的流媒体,收听在线直播的广播节目。

滴滴的审计预计将在未来几个月内完成,随后,该协议计划与堆栈的其他部分进行更深入的整合。反过来,使用量预计会增加。

治理参与

使用代币持有人参与治理作为牵引力的估计,Radicle在去中心化治理的第一年,选民的投票率很低。由于没有达到总代币供应量(400万RAD)的4%的投票门槛,反复出现提案失败的情况,导致重新评估治理和授权系统。此外,主要由核心团队成员代表的大量持股对治理决策产生了巨大的影响。例如,联合创始人、项目贡献者和Radicle基金会董事会成员Alexis Sellier (cloudhead)在第一次正式治理投票中投入了250万RAD。他的贡献占到了投票的35%。考虑到该网络正处于发展的早期阶段,活跃的核心贡献者对其方向有很大的发言权是合理的。然而,随着项目规模的扩大和新参与者的加入,这需要重新评估。

采用挑战

Radicle面临的挑战是如何将用户从Github的便利性转换到一个分散的、虽然还不顺利的替代方案。虽然分散的堆栈包含了开源的理想,但对早期用户来说,适应Radicle上的代码协作是很困难的。例如,Radicle的补丁(如拉动请求)还没有审查或评论功能,以便在协议内讨论潜在的变化。

此外,自从2022年7月Radicle Upstream桌面应用程序日落以来,使用大多数以太坊集成功能,如项目贡献者的支付流,在与堆栈组成的图形用户界面(GUI)中无法使用。虽然任何人都可以使用Radicle Drips GUI来流转和分割付款,但对于Radicle代码贡献者来说,这一关键的财务激励功能并不在前面和中心。以太坊集成的其他改进领域包括减少交易接触点或可能与更具成本效益的L2集成。

竞争格局

代码协作锻造器Github和Gitlab是Radicle最大的,但集中的竞争对手。截至2022年10月,Radicle的大约450个公共存储库与Github的3900万个公共存储库相比,相形见绌。此外,GitHub是Web3社区代码协作的明显赢家,因为绝大多数分散的组织都在那里托管他们的存储库。

就其他社区驱动的竞争者而言,存在诸如SecureScuttlebutt和Phorge等解决方案。Secure Scuttlebutt是一个为社交网络设计的去中心化流言协议,但在应用于代码协作时还有很多不足之处,包括缺乏一个可维护的典型分支。Phorge是一套用于使用Git等版本控制系统的开源工具,但它利用了传统的Web2客户-服务器模式,使用Phorge的项目是孤立运作的。两者都没有建立基于DAO的协作工具。到目前为止,Radicle似乎属于自己的范畴,提供开放和分散的代码协作以及金融激励工具。

为了获得市场份额,Radicle必须将去中心化网络的信徒吸引到去中心化的锻造中。虽然抵制审查是一个关键的协议吸引因素,但激励机制在网络层面并不存在。Radicle的激励模式围绕着以太坊的整合,以加强代码协作,反过来又为网络发展提供收费和拨款举措。金融激励工具,如支付流必须与堆栈更好地整合,以提供独特的代码协作体验,同时需要开启收费机制,以促进价值累积和未来网络发展。

风险

Radicle体现了自由和开源软件运动,为去中心化的组织提供了自我托管、共享和协作开源项目的工具。对于Radicle来说,还有待观察的是越来越多的采用、治理参与,以及反过来对代币和网络的价值累积。

截至2022年10月,大约有450个公共资源库在Radicle上启动。治理方面,每次投票约有15名参与者,大量的权力仍然集中在创始团队手中。此外,虽然Radicle的以太坊集成旨在为项目的财政部门提供费用收入,但由于项目专注于吸引新用户,这些机制尚未启用。这些挑战是相互关联的,为了激励和补偿DAO贡献者继续开发协议,解决这些挑战将很有价值。

最近几个月,核心团队的运作相对分散,导致在有效识别和进行协议升级时出现摩擦点。在考虑项目进一步去中心化的同时,这些摩擦点值得仔细研究。

路线图

Radicle核心团队计划在2023年2月前完全去中心化。所有协议的开发都将由财政部通过RAD代币治理来资助。值得注意的是,Radicle社区正在仔细构建这个类似DAO的结构应该如何运作。关键议题包括。

◉ 补偿应该是基于角色还是基于项目
◉ 核心小组应如何协调
◉ RAD代币所有权的分配,以激励那些分享网络开源精神和文化的利益相关者。

此外,2022年9月发布的第一份Radicle改进提案讨论了即将到来的Radicle存储和网络层的重大迭代,名为 “Heartwood”。除了一些技术上的改进,它的推出将引入八卦复制和数据验证,这是网络的点对点性质和防篡改的关键。Heartwood的开发正在积极进行中,代码合作发生在Radicle上。

结论

Radicle正在采取一种模块化的方法,为寻求抗审查伪造的开发者建立工具,同时为Web3的本地用户建立独立的支付协议。到目前为止,没有其他代码协作堆栈对主权和加密货币的可组合性进行优化。

虽然Radicle的产品肯定是独特的,但如果该项目成功激励其发展,采用、协调和价值捕获仍然是需要克服的挑战。核心团队向DAO的过渡将如何影响项目的未来还有待观察,但项目的统一激励措施是可见的,因为Radicle既体现了去中心化的代码协作基础,也发展了去中心化的代码协作基础。

 

 

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