关键要点

◉ 在22年第三季度,Livepeer服务显示出应用程序和开发人员的需求增加。
◉ 核心团队为支持Web3视频应用开发所做的努力,使网络使用量达到了约3700万分钟的转码视频的历史新高。
◉ 由于网络使用量的增加,需求方的收入以美元计算增加了7%(以ETH计算增加了52%)。
◉ 供应方参与者仍然致力于Livepeer网络,因为在整体市场低迷的情况下,赌注奖励以美元计算减少了46%(以LPT计算增加了17%)。

关于Livepeer的入门知识

构建像Twitch或TikTok这样的去中心化的视频应用,需要大量的基础设施来进行直播。基于用户的带宽和设备,视频内容需要被处理–即转码–可查看格式。虽然像AWS、谷歌或微软这样的云供应商是视频转码服务的常见解决方案,但它们会产生高昂的成本。Livepeer是一个开放的、无许可的市场–允许任何人贡献计算资源并在价格上竞争,Livepeer的目标是将转码成本降低10倍。

在Livepeer的去中心化网络中,有三个关键参与者。

◉ 节点操作员–称为 “协调者”–负责转码工作。节点运营商可以执行的工作量与它所持有的Livepeer本地代币(LPT)的数量成正比。节点运营商赚取ETH费用和新铸的LPT奖励。

◉ 转码器为节点运营商提供计算资源,并提供转码的视频内容。作为回报,他们赚取ETH费用。

◉ 代表者将LPT抵押给有效的节点运营商,并帮助确保Livepeer网络的安全。赌注的回报是部分ETH费用和新铸造的LPT。

性能分析

对Livepeer服务的需求来自需要视频转码服务的应用程序和开发人员。例如,用户生成的内容应用程序需要流媒体基础设施来向追随者播放视频。

网络使用量创历史新高

Livepeer的网络使用率可以通过视频转码的分钟数来衡量。

22年第三季度,Livepeer网络上的视频转码量达到了近3700万分钟的记录。这比22年第二季度增长了12%,显示了对Livepeer视频转码服务的健康需求。随着更多的支持Web3的视频应用走出原型阶段,预计需求将继续增长。

网络收入

Livepeer的网络收入包括需求方和供应方的收入。

需求方收入包括转码服务产生的ETH费用。拥有大量股权的节点运营商更有可能获得更多的转码工作,这反过来导致他们赚取更多的转码费用。

供应方的收入包括来自以下方面的收入

◉ LPT赌注奖励(由节点运营商和委托人累积),这产生了代币的通货膨胀发行
◉ 转码服务的ETH费用(由节点运营商和转码者累积)
后者不包括分配给委托者的ETH费用,因为委托者不积极参与转码服务的供应。

需求方收入(转码)

转码服务的费用以ETH支付给节点运营商,并进一步分配给转码器和委托人。

22年第三季度,Livepeer转码费用收入按ETH计算达到历史新高,比上一季度增长52%。以美元计算,这相当于增加了7%,超过9.1万美元。

转码费的收入与赌注奖励的收入相比,是相对微不足道的。像其他Web3基础设施协议一样,Livepeer通过通货膨胀奖励来补贴其节点运营商。这种补贴使Livepeer能够通过将实时视频转码的成本降低10倍,与亚马逊和谷歌等现有转码供应商竞争。随着转码费用的不断下降,转码分钟数需要继续增长,以使该协议能够持续。

虽然视频转码市场仍然相对较小,但转码收入已经与使用量和转码费用成比例增长。Livepeer在这个具有巨大上升潜力的市场中处于有利地位。

赌注奖励收入

Livepeer网络以LPT的形式向节点运营商和委托人分配赌注奖励。为了在Livepeer网络上提供转码服务,节点运营商必须押注LPT。一个节点运营商的赌注权重包括他们自己的代币和那些委托给他们的代币。

22年第三季度,以LPT计算的押注奖励收入增加了17%,超过65万LPT;然而,如果以美元计算,则下降了46%,为480万美元。虽然这与21年第四季度的1690万美元的历史记录相差甚远,但在目前整体市场低迷的情况下,这也证明了Livepeer网络的弹性。正如下面的 “赌注概述 “部分所强调的那样,赌注参与度的稳定增长显示了参与者对Livepeer网络的持续承诺,因为参与者为终端用户对视频转码服务日益增长的需求提供服务。

目前,绝大部分收入来自赌注奖励。随着杀手级社交应用的建立,Livepeer网络参与者将在多大程度上从增加的使用量中获取价值还有待观察。节点运营商获取价值的一种方式是在Livepeer网络上拥有更大的赌注,以增加获得更多转码工作的可能性。

赌注概述

LPT代币遵循 “以赌换取 “模式,也被称为工作代币模式。也就是说,Livepeer要求它的节点操作员将原生代币(LPT)入股,以便在网络上执行工作。节点运营商的股权包括他们自己的LPT代币(即自己的股权)和委托给他们的LPT(即委托的股权)。


截至22年第三季度末,近1380万LPT(总供应量为2640万LPT)已被Livepeer网络上的100个节点运营商和近4300个委托人所押注。委托人的股份占82%,而节点运营商的自我股份占18%。

我们在22年第二季度的报告中发现,Livepeer网络的参与率–即被押注的流通LPT供应的百分比–自21年第四季度以来一直保持在50%的平衡阈值左右。在22年第三季度,Livepeer网络参与率增加到平衡阈值以上。

自2022年2月Arbitrum迁移以来,参与率首次在整个22年第三季度逐渐上升到52%。Livepeer动态发行LPT赌注奖励,以保持赌注参与率在50%的目标均衡水平,具体如下。

◉ 如果参与率在某一轮中低于50%,LPT发行量将增加0.00005%。
◉ 反之,如果参与率超过50%,通货膨胀的发行量会减少0.00005%。

在2022年5月,参与率跌至46%。随后逐渐回升到50%的平衡水平,并在2022年9月底超额完成了52%的目标。参与率需要多长时间才能恢复到50%的目标均衡水平,以及对LPT令牌通胀的总体影响,还有待观察。

这些波动不应该被视为一种异常现象,而是一种特征。它们是一个动态机制的结果,通过代币奖励的通胀发行来平衡参与率。因此,在整个22年第三季度,参与率逐渐增加到52%,导致LPT发行量从0.028%逐渐减少到0.024%。

事实上,动态LPT发行的绝对值反映了代币通胀的连续增加和减少的模式。目前代币通货膨胀的减少预计将持续到22年第四季度,直到赌注参与率恢复到50%。

定性分析

发展与治理概述

转码之外的发展

我们在22年第二季度的报告中讨论了核心团队在视频广播之外发展Livepeer的愿景。几个途径包括视频摄取、内容交付和通用计算能力。虽然最近几个月通过Livepeer Studio提供了场景分类和物体识别的私人测试版,但社区还没有完全采用这些功能并将其引入Livepeer网络。

该社区还在尝试在新的一系列开源文本到图像的人工智能工具中渲染图像,如StableDiffusion。Livepeer网络很适合作为进行这类工作的可扩展和具有成本效益的基础设施,而且现有的协议和支付机制可以很容易地扩展,以适应类似的GPU能力。

核心团队专注于支持支持Livepeer的应用程序的开发者,以及推广Web3原生功能,试图通过Livepeer网络推动更大的视频量。

在22年第三季度,Livepeer开发者团队发布了Livepeer Catalyst–用于视频广播公司托管分散式媒体服务器(DMS)的节点软件。

Source: Livepeer Project Update Call Q3’22

使用Catalyst,广播公司可以很容易地连接到转码网络,向节点运营商提供视频并接收转码结果。因此,Catalyst可以被看作是Livepeer Studio的分散式替代方案,转码延迟得到改善。

此外,Livepeer开发者团队正在创建一个标准的DMS API,用于摄取和播放给最终用户。例如,该协议需要一种无缝的方式,让类似YouTube的分散项目(广播公司)从最终用户那里摄取视频,并播放来自Livepeer网络的转码结果。

Livepeer赠款

Livepeer从25万美元的Q3’22赠款计划中向六个社区运作的项目发放赠款。这些项目包括节点运营商Authority_Null的Orchestrator工具项目,以及一些流媒体应用程序OurTube、Clipto和Lenstube。

虽然OurTube仍处于早期开发阶段,但Clipto是一个运营平台,用户可以从创作者那里订购定制视频NFT。此外,Lenstube是一个去中心化的Youtube的替代品,由三种技术驱动。Lens Protocol的社交图谱,Livepeer的视频转码,以及视频NFT的IPFS存储。

治理

22年第三季度,Livepeer在2022年2月迁移到Arbitrum后进行了第一次治理投票。这次投票是为了应对以太坊合并后的参数调整。在合并之后,区块时间减少了大约10%,变成了固定的12秒。由于LPT通胀发行发生在每一轮,一轮时间减少约10%将导致LPT奖励分配频率增加约10%。作为回应,LPT代币持有者投票决定将Livepeer回合时间指标从5760块调整到6377块。这一更新确保以太坊的新回合时间不会影响协议的标准经济。

Livepeer 生态系统。值得注意的事件
升级后的Livepeer Explorer

Livepeer资源管理器在第二季度进行了重大升级,以帮助用户监测网络活动和委托代币。因此,股权更容易被委托给基于性能和预期收益的节点运营商,而不仅仅是那些拥有高股权的节点。自更新以来,股权已被分配给较小的节点运营商,速度越来越快。这有助于使网络参与者之间的转码多样化,并帮助较小的节点运营商实现盈利。在这种情况下,”盈利能力 “是指在一轮中赚取的LPT减去调用奖励所产生的气体费用的正差。这次升级应继续释放出越来越多的可负担得起的参与Livepeer网络。

Source: Livepeer Explorer (Screenshot taken as of October 5, 2022)

Livepeer在2022年Mainnet大会上

Livepeer创始人Doug Petkanics在9月举行的年度Mainnet会议期间会见了Messari团队。作为一个30分钟的小组会议的一部分,我们探讨了由Web3基元和基础设施实现的杀手级社交应用。我们预计,随着行业的成熟,独特的无权限协议的市场份额会越来越大。为此,Livepeer工作室今年余下时间的重点是帮助Web3应用程序在社交媒体、创作者和元组游戏经济中的产品化。

Livepeer活动的完整列表可以通过Messari Intel访问。

路线图

自22年第二季度以来,Livepeer工作室将重点转移到资助和开发Web3原生视频项目上。这些努力已转化为超过100个新项目在2022年建立由Livepeer驱动的应用程序。

Livepeer Studio对Web3应用程序的关注预计将增加Livepeer的使用费收入。目前在Livepeer上构建的应用程序包括。

◉ Huddle01 – 一个Web3原生视频会议应用
◉ The402–一家新成立的YCombinator公司,使用Livepeer进行创作者直播。
◉ Web 3 Edi – 一个广播教育平台
◉ Iris – 一个建立在Lens协议上的Web3社交创作者平台

除了专门为应用程序处理视频外,Livepeer还在探索直播和视频片段的链上集成。可验证的视频流方法引入了使用公钥地址流的视频到区块链的不可改变的链接。它将引入视频内容和所有权的可验证性。视频可以直接与终端用户挂钩,内容寻址流可以根据唯一的哈希值进行验证,而不需要完整地下载视频。

闭幕总结

Livepeer在巩固其作为Web3视频基础设施和服务层的地位的同时,正在扩大其转码以外的服务。 该网络在整个熊市中表现强劲,保持了一个由供应方参与者组成的坚定社区,为终端用户对视频转码服务日益增长的需求服务。

随着新的Web3原生应用突破原型阶段,对Livepeer网络的需求预计将继续增长。同时,Livepeer需要从转码服务中获得更多的收入,而不是奖励,以确保一个有弹性的生态系统。它还需要继续努力实现更统一的赌注分配,并在需求明显回升的情况下扩大节点运营商的基础。

随着Livepeer网络吸引更多的需求并扩大其节点和服务网络,它欢迎成为视频广播堆栈、摄取和交付层以及最终成为一般计算行业的杰出基础设施参与者的可能性。

 

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