以太坊合并即将到来:你需要知道什么?

Tl;dr: 以太坊预计将在2022年9月15日或前后转移到购买证明(PoS),使其更安全,能源消耗更少,更有利于实施新的扩展解决方案。请放心,在此期间,你的资产将是安全的,不需要你采取行动来升级。

2022年8月10日,以太坊完成了Goerli公共测试网的合并–在主网从工作证明(PoW)迁移到获取证明(PoS)*之前的最后一次试验(也被称为合并)。以太坊现在预计将在2022年9月15日或前后完成合并(TTD 5875000000000000000)。这个里程碑历时六年,与PoW相比,以太坊网络的能耗预计将减少99.95%。

随着DeFi和NFT的兴起,以太坊网络已经忍受了流量瓶颈和不可预测的交易(气体)费用的飙升。虽然PoS本身并没有降低交易费用,但它确实为以太坊继续实现其可扩展性路线图做好了准备。

为什么会发生以太坊合并?

为了解释这种过渡,以太坊基金会使用了一个比喻,将以太坊比作一艘飞行中的飞船:”社区已经建立了一个新的引擎和一个硬化的船体。经过大量的测试,几乎是时候把新引擎热交换到飞行中的旧引擎了。这将把新的、更有效的发动机并入现有的飞船。”

那么,旧引擎有什么问题?自2015年以太坊成立以来使用的区块链Mainnet,使用了一个叫做工作证明的系统,以安全地添加新的交易和其他信息。工作证明要求用户计算机在被允许添加新区块之前解决越来越难的计算。这种方法被称为采矿,被包括比特币在内的许多加密货币所使用。挖矿是安全的,但它也是能源密集型的。以太坊的工作证明每年消耗的能源量与一些国家在同一时间段内消耗的能源量相同。

产权证明是一种消耗能源较少的替代方法。想参与验证过程的用户不需要耗费电力,而是将他们的个人加密货币放在一个叫做 “押注 “的过程中。这些用户被称为验证者,他们被随机选择来验证将被添加到区块的新信息。如果他们确认准确的信息,他们就会收到加密货币。如果他们的行为不诚实,他们就会失去他们的赌注。

 

以太坊合并是如何进行的?

合并背后的一项重要技术是 “Beacon chain”–一个证明赌注的账户分类账,自2020年12月推出以来,一直在增加和验证不同于Mainnet的交易。它一直在接受测试,获得了一个跟踪记录,并以其他方式成为其自身的权利。(例如,它现在有超过40万个验证者)。

如果以及当合并发生时,Mainnet的信息将被转移到Beacon链–用以太坊的说法是飞行中的火箭发动机交换。

 

如果你目前拥有ETH,你会受到什么影响?

根据该网络的网站,如果你目前拥有以太币(股票代码:ETH),你不需要做什么。许多其他技术和数字资产都在以太坊的平台上运行。如果你拥有其中任何一种,你也不会受到影响。以太坊警告那些建议你需要升级或转移到一个新的代币,如 “ETH2 “的骗子。没有这样的代币存在。

如果你目前操作一个以太坊节点,或者你是Beacon Chain上的一个staker,你需要采取某些步骤来确保平稳过渡。如果你目前是一个矿工,在合并后你将不再能够挖矿。

如果你在合并前后在交易所进行交易,预计存款和提款会有短暂的暂停。以太坊链本身在过渡期间不会暂停。

关于合并,投资者应该知道什么?

我们不可能确切知道ETH在合并后的表现,但投资者可能要考虑以下因素。

这些变化可能已经被定价了。合并已经发展了多年,并得到了持续的关注。鉴于投资者已经考虑了一段时间,价格可能不会在任何方向上有太大的波动。然而,如果合并没有按计划进行,这些投资假设将需要重新调整–价格也将随之调整。

 

新币的流动将放缓。新的ETH代币进入流通领域的速度将减少约90%,因为比赌注奖励更大的采矿奖励将停止。

加油费和交易速度将保持不变。拥堵和高交易成本一直是以太坊普遍存在的痛点。而根据以太坊的网站,合并后不会立即改变这两个问题。

分片将成为可能。分片将验证工作分割成较小的数量,并允许网络处理更多的交易。这可以通过允许手机等设备成为节点来增加以太坊网络的参与者数量,所有这些都可能解决上面一点中描述的拥堵问题。但是,这里有一个关键的问题–分片只在合并后成为一种可能。它在以太坊网络上还不存在,尽管开发者预计明年会引入它。

可能的更大的权力集中。目前,计算能力维持以太坊的运行。合并后,盯盘者的财富将通过盯盘来延续。因此,最大的所有者,包括托管人,可能会在以太坊生态系统中获得巨大的影响力,这是对许多加密货币支持者所重视的去中心化精神的偏离。

◉  分叉可能发生。如果交易链分裂成两个不同的链,每个链都有自己的代币,就会发生分叉。新的分叉不会立即在交易所上市,尽管它可能在审查后上市。为什么会发生分叉?一种可能性是ETH矿工,否则他们在合并后将变得过时,可以继续工作证明链。

 

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