灵魂绑定令牌 (SBT) 是数字身份令牌,代表构成个人或实体的特征、特征和成就。 SBT由代表区块链账户或钱包的“灵魂”发行,不能转让。

介绍

Soulbound Tokens (SBT) 是以太坊联合创始人 Vitalik Buterin、律师 Puja Ohlhaver 和经济学家兼社会技术专家 E. Glen Weyl于 2022 年 5 月提出的概念。

这份名为“去中心化社会:寻找 Web3 的灵魂”的白皮书阐述了由用户管理的完全去中心化社会 (DeSoc) 的基础,以及灵魂绑定令牌 (SBT) 如何作为我们在日常生活中使用的凭证。

以太坊联合创始人Vitalik Buterin将灵魂绑定代币描述为不可转让的NFT,可以帮助代表一个人在Web3中的身份和成就。

不可转移的代币(NFT)是一种区块链资产,允许持有者证明对某一物品的所有权,无论是实物还是数字。每个NFT都是独一无二的,不能被复制,在大多数情况下,NFT的所有权可以被买卖。

NFT不与某个特定的人或团体挂钩,根据最近的推特调查,许多人购买NFT是为了赚钱。像CryptoPunks或Bored Ape Yacht Club这样受欢迎的NFT项目可以在OpenSea这样的市场上以数十万美元的价格转售,形成了一个NFT频繁交易的环境,不管谁出价最高。

但是,如果有一种数字代币与个人联系在一起,不能被买卖,会怎么样呢?2022年5月,以太坊联合创始人Vitalik Buterin、经济学家Eric Glen Weyl和律师Puja Ohlhaver提出了一个名为soulbound tokens(SBT)的概念,以解决NFT和其他去中心化结构的当前限制。以下是什么是魂魄代币以及它们如何工作。

什么是灵魂绑定代币?

Soulbound 代币 (SBT) 是使用区块链技术代表个人身份的不可转让代币。这可能包括医疗记录、工作经历以及构成个人或实体的任何类型的信息。持有或发行这些记录的钱包被称为“灵魂”。

人们可以有多个钱包(或灵魂)代表他们生活的不同部分。例如,某人的工作经历可能有一个“证书灵魂”,而他们的健康记录可能有一个“医疗灵魂”。 Souls 和 SBT 将允许人们根据他们过去的行为和经验建立可验证的数字Web3声誉。

另一方面,Souls 可以代表分配 SBT 的实体。例如,公司可以是灵魂,向每个员工发放 SBT。数字乡村俱乐部可以发布 SBT 来验证会员身份。

灵魂绑定背后的逻辑源于流行的网络游戏魔兽世界。

玩家不能出售或转让灵魂绑定物品。一旦拾取,灵魂绑定物品将永远与玩家的“灵魂”“绑定”。

现在,想像一下这个想法,但适用于不可替代的代币(NFT )。如今,大多数 NFT 都是数字艺术或收藏品的所有权证书,例如Bored Ape Yacht Club 。人们会购买、交易或炫耀 NFT,作为地位和财富的象征。

SBT 旨在将 NFT 概念转变为超越金钱和吹嘘权利的东西,一种既独一无二又不可转让的代币。 NFT 代表资产和财产,而 SBT 代表个人或实体的声誉。与 NFT 不同的是,SBT 的货币价值为零,一旦发行到某人的钱包就不能交易。

你能买到Soulbound代币吗?

Soulbound代币不能买卖,也不被设计为具有市场价值。相反,它们可以由个人或其他实体发行,以象征一项成就。

NFT创新平台Idexo声称,它在2021年4月推出了第一个soulbound代币,当时这个想法被正式命名。其不可转让的早期采用者NFT是在Binance智能链上铸造的,并与持有人的Telegram用户名挂钩。

Idexo最近还将SBTs添加到其软件开发工具包中,使社区能够在多个区块链平台上创建SBTs。

灵魂资产代币可以用来做什么?

截至2022年9月,这一概念及其使用案例仍在研究之中。根据白皮书,SBT可以通过减少对Web2中心化结构的依赖,帮助推动Web3的发展。例如,它指出,许多用户依靠Coinbase或Binance等中心实体管理的托管钱包来存储他们的加密货币,而NFT艺术家则依靠OpenSea或Twitter等中心化平台来销售他们的作品。

此外,SBTs试图让我们远离加密货币的 “过度金融化”,并不鼓励将NFTs作为身份的象征。

SBTs还可以通过创建社会可验证的声誉,帮助驾驭Web3的无信任和大体上的假名性质。例如,任何人都可以声称自己是哈佛大学的毕业生,但持有该大学的SBT可以用来证明你在Web3中的教育资格。

在一个社区愿意对一个人或团队给予多少信任方面,声誉可以发挥很大作用。你可能会非常谨慎地对待那些有欺骗投资者或放弃项目历史的人。或者,你会很有信心与那些有良好记录的人合作。

如何使用SBT?

SBT 具有广泛的潜在用例。以下是一些可能在日常生活中使用的示例。

  1. 1. 教育经历——当人们大学毕业时,他们会收到一份证明完成了必修课程的证书。大学可以是发出 SBT 的灵魂,而学生将是接收端的灵魂。 SBT 将存储学生的证书,证明他们持有相关资格并且是大学的成员。简而言之,SBT 将用作出勤证明。
  2. 2. 工作申请——理论上,求职者可以使用以前的公司和机构颁发的官方 SBT 提交他们以前的所有工作经历和专业证书。 SBT 将用作技能证书的证明。
  3. 3. 健康记录——使用保存个人医疗记录的 SBT 可以加快更换医生或医疗保健提供者的速度。假设,SBT 将取代填写文书工作、验证您的病史以及与某人来回打电话的缓慢过程。

例子包括

◉ 管理医疗记录
◉ 存储数字ID卡或会员资格
◉ 证明成就,如工作经历或教育
◉ 核实活动的出席情况,类似于出席证明协议
◉ 允许人们根据过去的行为建立可验证的数字声誉。这可以使跟踪用户的去中心化金融(DeFi)借款历史和发放贷款更加容易。
◉ 为去中心化自治组织(DAO)治理模式引入基于声誉的投票。这也可以帮助DAO缓解Sybil攻击
◉ 利用社会恢复来获取个人丢失的私钥

SBT 如何在 Web3 中工作?

信任是影响 Web3 行业的主要挑战之一。在一个设计为无需信任的系统中,您如何信任一个人的声誉?让我们以借钱为例。与传统的银行信用评分类似,SBT 可以跟踪用户的DeFi借贷历史以及确定其风险状况的其他指标。

SBT 也是去中心化自治组织 (DAO)投票的替代方案。与当前基于成员持有多少代币的治理模型不同,DAO 可以发布 SBT,根据用户与社区的互动分配投票权。该模型将优先考虑具有良好声誉的最忠实用户的投票权。

除了创建基于声誉的投票系统外,SBT 还可能提高 DAO 投票的完整性——即防御Sybil 攻击——这是当前 DAO 治理模型的最大威胁之一。

在 Sybil 攻击期间,个人或一群不良行为者通过购买大部分治理代币来推翻 DAO。拥有多数投票权的人可以操纵投票提案并引导项目的方向对他们有利。 SBT 的公开性和可验证性有助于检测和防止不良行为者进入 DAO,进而阻止腐败和 Sybil 攻击的发生。

灵魂代币的未来

截至 2022 年 8 月,SBT 仅存在于纸面上。 Glen Weyl 是对原始 SBT 白皮书做出贡献的合著者之一,他认为到 2022 年底将会有早期的 SBT 用例。

根据白皮书,灵魂和SBT将作为去中心化社会的基础,被描述为一个 “变革的、多元化的未来”,其中社会互动和人际关系是你的Web3身份的重要基石。

Soulbound代币可以通过建立来源和声誉来帮助解决Web3中的信任问题。它们是不可转让的,理论上降低了人们通过购买地位或对自己的成就撒谎来操纵生态系统的风险。由于身份盗窃和冒名顶替的过程更加复杂,这也可以使Web3的诈骗不那么猖獗。

白皮书的作者之一Eric Glen Weyl预测,到2022年底,SBT将可用于早期用例。2020年9月,加密货币交易所Binance宣布了自己的 SBT,称为 Binance Account Bound (BAB)。 BAB 代币不可转让,没有货币价值,是 BNB 链上首次发行的 SBT。 BAB旨在解决Web3中的身份验证问题,作为完成KYC的Binance用户的数字验证工具。

除了币安生态系统之外,第三方协议将能够使用 BAB 代币空投NFT、防止机器人活动、促进 DAO 治理投票等用例。

对于SBT和创建一个真正的去中心化的社会来说,隐私仍然是一个挑战。然而,soulbound代币具有大规模效用的潜力。

1,207 thoughts on “什么是灵魂绑定(Soulbound)代币?”
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