在2021年的NFT夏季–NFT的全球市场膨胀到超过25亿美元–之前,加密圈见证了一个类似的繁荣时期,后来被称为2020年的DeFi夏季。

在很大程度上,由于收益率养殖现象的推动,DeFi夏季的事件推动了DeFi协议的总价值锁定(TVL),到9月下旬大约为100亿美元。随着最近NFT和DeFi市场的爆炸性增长,这两种技术不可避免地发生交集只是时间问题。

NFTFi究竟是什么?

NFTFi是利用NFTs通过获取更多的流动资产来为交易融资。

DeFi和NFT的这种碰撞,使NFT持有人的NFT成为流动性更强的资产,为NFT开辟了各种可能性。

NFTFi内有多个部门,本文将介绍它们是什么,它们各自的优点和缺点,以及这些部门中最大的平台。

NFTFi内的部门包括﹕

◉ NFT零碎化
◉ NFT租赁
◉ NFT衍生品
◉ 贷款/借贷使用NFTs

当NFTs遇上DeFi

目前,DeFi协议是围绕模仿传统金融而设计的。然而,随着NFTs的引入,有可能出现一系列全新的金融产品。例如,一些贷款协议现在允许NFTs作为贷款抵押品,为借款人和贷款人提供了一个替代DeFi中更传统的稳定币或加密货币支持的贷款。在任何一种情况下,NFT/DeFi项目都利用了每种技术的优势,提供一种明显比其各部分之和更有价值的产品。

在实践中,DeFi和NFT之间的结合是一个已经积累了越来越多的兴趣和发展活动的领域。总的看来,一些项目通常更倾向于增强NFTs以适应DeFi方法。例如,流动性池和部分协议的存在允许NFT持有人实现其持有的流动性,同时给予那些资本不那么充足的投资者获得高价值代币的机会。相比之下,其他项目似乎更强调通过使用基于NFT的资产来加强DeFi基元。例如,一些贷款协议现在允许NFT作为贷款抵押品,为借款人和贷款人提供了一个替代DeFi中更传统的稳定币或加密货币支持的贷款。无论是哪种情况,NFT/DeFi项目都利用了每种技术的优势,提供一种明显比其各部分之和更有价值的产品。让我们看看一些例子。

 

什么是NFT碎片化?

NFT碎片化是通过一组与原始NFT相关的可替换代币来分享NFT所有权的过程。

为了碎片化NFT,NFT被放置在一个保险库中。然后铸造代表NFT所有权的ERC-20代币,每个代币代表原始NFT中的所有权份额。

优点

NFT零碎化允许资本较少的投资者获得昂贵的NFT集合的风险。这使得更多的流动性进入市场,因为昂贵的NFT可以使用可替换的代币被分成其价值的份额。

缺点

NFT碎片化产生的一个困难是 “把它重新组合起来 “的过程。为了将整个NFT从保险库中取出,所有的持有人必须出售他们的股份,这意味着所有的零头必须重新组合起来。

平台

Unic.ly允许用户通过连接他们的钱包,将他们的NFT存入一个保险库,并铸造新的ERC-20代币(uToken)来实现NFT的零碎化。Unic.ly有自己的DEX,UnicsSwap,UniSwap的一个分叉,uToken可以在这里进行交易。Unic.ly提供了一些机制来帮助确保uToken池有足够的流动性。如果一个集合有足够高的价值,uToken也可以被列入白名单。白名单收藏品的LP代币持有者可以用他们的LP代币来赚取Unic.ly的管理代币$UNIC。

Fractional.art也提供类似的服务。这两个平台的关键区别是,Fractional.art没有让投资者入股赚取收益的选项。

NFTX.io是一个NFT市场平台,让用户将他们的NFT存入一个保险库,以创建一个可替代的ERC20代币(vToken)。新铸造的代币代表了对保险库内任何随机NFT的1:1索赔。用户可以在自动做市商(AMM)中汇集ERC20代币,如SushiSwap,以创造流动性和交易。

什么是NFT租赁?

像BAYC或Cryptopunks这样的蓝筹NFT项目并不是大多数人都能负担得起的。在撰写本文时,这些藏品的底价分别为84ETH(142200美元)和74ETH(125300美元)。和分房一样,NFT租房也被确立为解决这一问题的办法,只是形式不同,更加熟悉。

像租用公寓或汽车一样,租用NFT为个人提供在有限时间内使用NFT的机会。

NFT租赁有两种形式。
1. 有抵押物的租赁
2. 无抵押的租赁。

抵押租赁

对于抵押租赁,NFT所有者在租赁市场上列出其资产。然后,租房者可以启动租房程序。

NFT被放置在一个智能合约中,上面有借款人和贷款人的条款和条件。这些条件包括租赁费和抵押品,抵押品的价格高于NFT以保护贷款人。合同到期后,NFT和抵押品将回到它们原来的主人手中。

超额抵押租赁的过程与DeFi中借款和贷款协议所采用的方法并无不同。潜在的租房者可以通过提供价值高于他们想要的NFT的抵押品来获得他们想借的NFT。然后,借款人可以在NFT持有人和NFT所绑定的编码智能合约所指定的时间段内访问NFT。

无抵押物的租赁

两者之间的关键区别在于,在无抵押物租赁中,租赁者将永远不会收到原始NFT。

提供无抵押物租赁的平台允许贷款人存入他们的NFT,并制作一个包装版本。一旦用户租用了NFT并支付了租赁费,租户就会收到包装好的NFT,享受与原始NFT相同的效用。合同到期后,包装好的NFT被烧毁,租赁费将被送到贷款人手中。无抵押的租赁将双方的风险降到最低,因为租用者不需要提供抵押品,而贷款人也不需要出租他们的原始资产。

优点

租赁使NFT持有人有机会按照自己的条件从他们的NFT藏品中获得被动收入,而不必担心分权问题。

租赁的用例正在不断扩大。随着空间的发展,租赁NFT将越来越多地在NFT画廊和博物馆中使用,Musee Dezentral等平台已经提供了这种体验。提供访问权的NFT持有者可以将他们的NFT出租给那些希望在一段时间内参加NFT社区活动的人,如果他们自己不用于该目的,但希望保留对NFT的曝光。

缺点

NFT租赁作为一种商业模式在NFT世界中仍然是新的,因此仍然很容易被利用。最近发生的一个漏洞是在为BAYC持有人空投猿币时发生的。一个不知名的用户在空投前用闪电贷款租出了5个BAYC NFT,使他/她的钱包有资格获得Ape Coin的空投。他们被空投了猿币,而这个未知的用户因为租借NFT的漏洞,成功地赚取了80万美元。

平台

◉ 大多数NFT租赁平台提供相对类似的服务。他们提供一个菜单来浏览不同的NFT和收藏品,而铸造一个包装好的NFT或发布抵押品所需要的只是连接用户的钱包。最大的有抵押品的NFT租赁平台是IQ ProtocolVera
◉ 最大的无抵押租借平台是reNFT
IQ Protocol这个平台还没有完全投入租赁,reNFT也是如此,所以将有多少收藏品和租赁的经验仍然难以判断。Vera正在运营,但目前只有25个NFT上市出租。

什么是NFT衍生品?

NFT衍生品是NFTFi世界中较新的发展之一。在NFT领域内的衍生品,与非NFT衍生品类似。

它们代表可交易的合同,让人们对NFT收藏品的未来价格进行投注。

优点

NFT衍生品在NFT的流动性方面有很大帮助。它开辟了很多可能性,例如可以交易高价值的NFT,甚至可以使用杠杆来交易NFT。用户还可以在NFT价格的任何一个方向进行交易,可以是上升(长)或下降(短)。

TradFi的衍生品市场明显大于现货市场,衍生品的名义价值估计有几百万亿美元。这显示了NFT衍生品的市场增长潜力,特别是当使用110亿美元的NFT市场作为相当于现货市场时。

缺点

就像其他衍生品交易一样,NFT衍生品有很高的风险,尤其是在使用杠杆时,因为它可以放大损失。此外,NFT衍生品交易还处于起步阶段,因此目前很少有NFT系列可用于衍生品交易。

平台

提供NFT衍生品交易的最知名平台是NFTures,这是Synfutures的产品。目前,该平台只提供早期访问,只有一个NFT可用于做多/做空,是一个CryptoPunk,目前价格为77ETH。
Fuku是另一家开拓NFT衍生品领域的公司。Fuku将提供第一个期权交易NFT市场,任何人都可以购买和写入任何NFT的期权,而不是将交易限制在某些集合。这意味着有超过200万个系列,以及8000万个NFT,Fuku允许消费者写入和购买期权,将NFTFi交易扩展到蓝筹NFT之外。Fuku还提供各种交易服务,不仅仅是看涨和看跌期权,例如限价订单,以及用同一抵押品竞标多个NFT衍生品的能力。代币化的期权也可以在二级市场上转售,扩大了Fuku的影响力。在Fuku上,写期权是完全没有矿工费的,因为它发生在链外。只有当买家和卖家就交易达成一致时,才会支付矿工费,然后将其代币化为ERC721不可伪造的代币。这些因素使Fuku真正与众不同,并使web3市场上一些最大的参与者对其平台充满信心。他们的合作伙伴包括区块链资本、Coinbase、a16z和Y Combinator。

使用NFTs的借出/借入

在NFTFi世界中,有三种新兴的借贷类型。

1. P2P NFT借贷
NFT借贷是NFT行业中一个不断增长的部门。与DeFi借贷一样,NFT借贷通常是通过智能合约在链上促成的。智能合约包含资产、流动资金(贷款)以及贷款的条款和条件。P2P NFT借贷平台在点对点的基础上将潜在的借款人和贷款人联系起来,在双方之间建立一个无信任的贷款,使用NFT作为抵押品。

2. 借贷/CDPs
NFTs的抵押债务头寸是通过将抵押品锁定在智能合约中以生成稳定币来创建的。在这种情况下,抵押品将是NFT,CDP是通过找到NFT集合的底价来创建的,它被用来确定贷款的规模。

3. 贷款池
NFT货币市场中的借贷池的运作方式与DeFi中的很相似,在DeFi中,Aave和Compound等平台已经将其普及。贷款池使用过度抵押的方法。借款人张贴NFT作为抵押品。这使他们能够借入资金,收取借贷费用,其市场价值低于抵押品的总价值。这笔费用被分配给贷款人,以激励他们提供流动性。

优点
NFT借贷为整个NFT生态系统提供额外的流动性支持。这个新行业允许NFT贷款人利用他们的收款来赚取收益,由借款人以借款费用的形式支付。借款人也有可能通过贷款为新的NFT购买提供资金,因为他们可以获得更多的流动资本,而不必出售他们的NFT。

缺点
所有这些贷款选项的一个缺点是难以为NFT定价。平台有不同的机制,如简单地使用价格下限,或使用自己的定价器。不过,使用价格下限会严重低估NFT的价值,因为价格下限是收藏品中价值最低的NFT的价格。神谕定价机制也是有问题的,因为它们的方法或其准确性都被不确定性所笼罩。

为了缓解这个问题,目前,大多数平台只允许某些NFT收藏品作为抵押品,以保证提供贷款者的抵押品价格的某种形式的稳定性。

平台

◉ 最知名的NFT借贷平台之一是NFTfi.com。它允许NFT所有者使用NFT,通过接受有担保的weth和DAI贷款来获得他们需要的流动性。NFTfi.com是一个点对点的平台,让NFT持有人和流动性提供者通过无权限的智能合约基础设施进行连接。

◉ NFTfi.com为150多个NFT集合提供服务,使他们的服务可以为各种客户提供。

◉ Arcade,以前被称为Pawn.fi,是另一个流行的NFT贷款平台。Arcade允许用户将多个NFT包在一起,作为单一贷款的抵押品,这意味着用户可以获得比其他平台更大的贷款。Arcade上的贷款可以在任何时候全额偿还,给了借款人更多的灵活性。这使Arcade区别于NFTfi.com。

◉ UnUniFi是一个NFT CDP平台,声称拥有NFTFi中最灵活的贷款价值(LTV)比率。UnUniFi有一个内部NFT市场,用于收集NFT价格底线的数据。这些数据被用来确定贷款规模。UnUniFi有三个稳定币,可以铸造和借出。

与UnUniFi相比,JPEG’d的所有债务头寸的LTV比率为32%。有一些可操作性,因为可以向DAO提出特殊要求,允许更高或更低的比率。除了有固定的债务头寸外,所有贷款在启动时都有2%的固定利息。JPEG’d还允许借款人为其CDP购买保险。

NFTFi的未来

NFTFi正在成为Web3中最激动人心的最新创新之一。 这个行业解决了NFT所面临的流动性问题,将其开放给目前其他资产类别所享有的各种新的金融用例。

 

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