“与大部分现存公链不同,雪崩由三条平行公链所组成,三条链各司其职,共同创造出一个快速且方便能够使 DeFi 搭载于其上的智能合约平台。”

总结

AVAX 背后的开发团队实力坚强,同时不管是吞吐量、速度都有兼顾到,也可以说是一个充满潜力的 layer 1 平台。这也表示在未来当生态系逐渐完整,影响力将与日俱增。 受益于高扩容与快速交易速度,加上现时 AVAX 的市值仍处于较便宜的水平,未来 AVAX 的发展值得期待。

 

基本介绍

简介:

雪崩协议(Avalanche)是于2020年才上线的新区块链平台,拥有高度的扩容性及极佳性能。 与大部分现存公链不同,雪崩由三条平行公链所组成,三条链各司其职,共同创造出一个快速且方便能够使 DeFi 搭载于其上的智能合约平台。

 

团队:

Ava Labs 共有三名创办人,其中一人是 Emin Gün Sirer,是位资深计算机科学家,长期参与比特币 (BTC) 与去中心化网路。 Sirer 长期关切比特币规模化问题,而 Avalanche 共识演算法是该研究的直接成果,和比特币相比有更高的交易容量,可与 VISA 等公司一争高下。 另两外共同创办人 Kevin Sekniqi 与 Maofan “Ted” Yin,都和 Sirer 一样与康乃尔大学相关。 Sirer 是Yin 的顾问,Yin 正在攻读计算机科学博士学位。 团队其他成员主要由计算计科学、经济学、金融与法律领领的专家组成。

 

代币供应:

AVAX 发行总量为720,000,000 AVAX,其中3.6亿枚在区块链创世期释出,交易手续费会被焚毁,以增加代币的稀有性。

代币分配如下:

奖励参与测试网验证的使用者:0.28%

种子轮:2.5%

空投份额:2.5%

私募:3.46%

策略伙伴,协助他们在雪崩主网上建立专案:5%

社群发展、技术协助等奖励:7%

雪崩基金会:9.26%

公募:10%

团队开发人员:10%

质押奖励:50%

AVAX 代币赋能:

AVAX 代币的持有人可参与治理投票,决定平台政策走向,包括决定 AVAX 代币的释出速度等参数设定。

参与链上操作将需要支付 AVAX 作为手续费,如同在以太坊上进行操作需要以太币一样,这些手续费将会持续烧毁,以保持 AVAX 的稀缺性。

持有者亦可以透过质押代币,获得质押奖励,奖励的多寡是根据质押的数量,按比例分配。质押的越久,奖励就越多。想要成为 AVAX 的质押者,则必须最少质押 2,000 AVAX 才行,质押时间最低两周最长一年。

 

当前状态(2021年8月25日星期三)

量化指标:

AVAX公链的特点

三链结构的雪崩协议

雪崩中的三条链分别为「P 链」、「X 链」跟「C 链」,三条链各有各的功能,而且彼此之间能跨链转换,能够让使用者更方便利用资产。

AVAX X链:负责建立及交易 X 链:又叫做交易链,主要负责资产的建立与交易,大部分的使用者在转移资产或是交易资产时都是使用这条链,也是交易所支援 Avax 代币提领及转出的一条链。

 

AVAX P链:储存链上的数据、资料、验证工作 P 链:又称平台链或是治理链,主要功能是负责储存链上的数据、资料,以及验证工作。

 

AVAX C链:负责智能合约 C 链:又可以称为合约链,负责智能合约相关功能。这条链是 EVM 兼容,所以能够跟大部分的智能合约做互动,能够添加于 Metamask 上。

 

Avalanche 描述了一种新的共识协议

众所周知,分散式系统有一般有两种达成共识的方法:经典共识协定以及中本聪共识协定。

经典共识协议由兰伯特提出,具有强一致性、高效的特点,但也有通讯成本高、节点无法自由进出的缺点。

中本聪共识协定是一套验证区块链网路真实性的规则,与拜占庭容错(BFT)点对点网路上的工作量证明共识演算法相结合。解决了节点无法自由进出的问题,但是成本问题依旧没有解决。


雪崩协议将两种方法合并成一个全新的协议,借鉴了中本聪协议概率性安全保障的设计,同时加入了 BFT 属性,并且与现存的共识机制不同,雪崩网路的验证者不需要昂贵的、专业的硬体设备,你使用的电脑或废旧电脑也可运行一个节点。 简单来说,当一笔交易广播至网路以后,如果交易有效,验证者会经历一个被称为「重复随机抽样」,就是在系统验证者中挑选出一部分节点参与区块验证。 如果多数节点对事件叙述相同,那么即判断为真,如果大多数节点给出不同答案,则切换事件内容,重复采样将会多次进行直到结束。 透过反复的抽样,直到有足够的节点可以确认大概率正确,至此,完成确认。为了保证安全性,引入了计数器、信任度、有向无循环图表等机制,使得过去的交易资讯难以被篡改。

AVAX公链的优势

  • Avalanche 是一个高速智能合约平台,支持亚秒级确定性和 Visa 级别的吞吐量。
  • Avalanche 完全支持以太坊虚拟机(EVM 兼容),因此,以太坊工具开箱即用如 Truffle Suite、Remix、MetaMask、MEW 和所有其他大家喜欢的以太坊工具。
  • Avalanche 支持特定于应用程序的分片,使开发人员能够启动符合其特定需求的应用程序。
  • Avalanche 不仅支持应用程序级可程式化特性,还支持网路级别的可程式化特性,使开发人员不仅可以控制其去中心化应用程式的执行,还可以安全地管理私人数据。
  • Avalanche 完全支持非同质化代币 (NFT),并计划创建一个注册表,以便用户可以在 Avalanche 上发现及探索整个 NFT 领域。
  • Avalanche 基金会宣布将推出1.8亿美元的流动性挖矿奖励计划 Avalanche Rush,鼓励更多应用和资产加入蓬勃发展的 Avalanche DeFi生态。根据 Avalanche Rush 计划,Avalanche 将集成 AAVE 和 Curve 这两项总锁定价值最高的 DeFi 协议。Avalanche Rush一期计划将于近日启动,为 AAVE 和 Curve 的用户提供长达3个月的 AVAX(Avalanche原生代币)流动性挖矿奖励。Avalanche 基金会为 AAVE 用户准备了相当于2,000万美元的 AVAX 激励,为 Curve 用户准备了相当于700万美元的 AVAX 激励。随着未来数月二期项目的推出,基金会将拨付更多AVAX 奖励。

Layer 1 公链竞争者比较

  • AVAX 与以太坊的比较

与以太坊相比,Avalanche 支持整个以太坊虚拟机 (EVM) 及其工具——但在幕后,我们以截然不同的方式应对我们共同的挑战。

目前,以太坊使用像比特币一样的工作量证明挖矿,并打算在推出以太坊 2.0 时迁移到权益证明。虽然工作量证明是强大协议的极好基础,但它通过故意放慢网络动作和确认时间来实现这种稳定性。在比特币的“数字黄金”论文中,这是一个完全可以接受的权衡,但对于蓬勃发展的 DeFi 世界来说,这是一个艰难的卖点。

只要以太坊使用工作量证明,它就很难在不产生大量费用和网络拥堵的情况下扩大参与度。以太坊 2.0 的股权证明方法将有所帮助,但它的扩展方法“分片”也引入了显着的复杂性和执行风险,“分片”旨在同时而不是连续处理交易。

Avalanche 从去中心化网络的绝对基础:共识来应对扩展挑战。 Avalanche 系列中的协议能够实现亚秒级确定性,每秒支持 4,500 多笔交易,并扩展到数百万个参与共识的完整的、出块的验证器节点。

与以太坊不同,应用程序必须竞争相同的有限网络资源池——这会提高所有参与者的费用—— Avalanche 上的应用程序可以在他们自己的独立区块链中运行,这些区块链由一组动态的、自定义的验证器验证。这些子网络仍然连接到 Avalanche 上更广泛的链生态系统,但现在它们的关系纯粹是增值(例如跨网络价值转移)而不是竞争。这不仅可以创建私有子网,还允许开发人员定义其实施的规则、经济性、参与者和安全性。Avalanche 正在实施以太坊和 EVM 的一些惊人创新,同时改变核心机制,使其运行更快、更轻、更便宜。 ‍

AVAX 与其他以太坊杀手的比较

其他被贴上以太坊杀手标签的项目都聚集在一系列经典共识协议周围,这些协议的限制在过去 40 年中得到了很好的理解和深入研究。

这些项目通常在交易吞吐量和速度方面最具优势,并且对它们的去中心化(其特点是网络可以容纳的参与者数量或依赖于指定的领导者的数量)以及由此产生的小团体拥有如此多控制权的安全权衡保持沉默。

与这些以太坊杀手不同,Avalanche 在不牺牲去中心化或安全性的情况下实现了亚秒级确定性、高吞吐量和效率。

在 Avalanche 上,验证者在确定要采样的节点时会进行单独的实验。每个节点在不考虑其他节点所做选择的情况下进行采样。没有优惠待遇或企业购买特殊席位来窥视特权较低的节点。

主流公链

AVAX

ETH

BSC

DOT(波卡)

市值

(美金)

92.21亿

3,755亿

833亿

260亿

完全稀释后市值(美金)

379.32亿

3,755亿

833亿

289亿

流通量

173,822,468

117,246,714

168,137,036

987,579,314

总供应量

720,000,000 AVAX

没有上限,预计每年增加0-3%

200,000,000 BSC

没有上限,在通胀率上Polkadot希望是每年10%

工作量证明

PoS

PoW

PoSA

NPoS

TPS(每秒处理速度)

非常快

>4500笔/秒

非常慢

14笔/秒

中等

~150笔/秒

1500笔/秒

去中心化程度

~1040个节点

非常高

>6800个节点

非常低

~21个节点

~200个节点在relay chain

可拓展性

非常高

非常低

链上交易量/日

194,418

1,247,051

5,325,125

9,970

优势

  • 高TPS

  • EVM(以太坊兼容)

  • 完全支持非同质化代币 (NFT)

  • 有代币销毁机制

  • 主流认同,Dapp的首选公链

  • 基于以太坊开发的DApp最多

  • 应用场景非常多

  • 去中心化程度高

  • 多项Layer2项目(如Matic, Optimistc rollup)为以太坊提高扩展性

  • EVM(以太坊兼容)

  • 交易费用非常低

  • 支持币安生态系统,为许多DeFi项目提供资金及其它支持

  • 交易总数增长速度非常快

  • EVM(以太坊兼容)

  • 创立Kusama 测试网, 能为dApp在波卡上线前做更多前瞻实践

  • Web3基金会资助优质项目, 打造波卡生态

  • 中继链 + 平行链的架构获得高可扩展性

  • 跨链可组合性允许任何类型的数据或资产在平行链之间发送,从而允许更多新的用例和应用程序的出现

  • 平行链可以使用跨网络桥连接到比特币和以太坊等外部网络。

劣势

  • 认受性还是低

  • 处理速度慢

  • 可扩展性差

  • gas费用高

  • 中心化程度非常高

  • 最近有不少项目遭到攻击

  • 中心化程度较高

  • 现时大部分Dapp还在测试网中

潜力

  • 多项明星项目准备上链

  • 推出Eth 2.0

  • 变成PoS

  • 处理速度大大提升(10万笔/秒)

  • 可扩展性提高

  • 将会有代币销毁

  • 快速增长的生态系统

  • 多项明星项目准备上链

  • 速度达到每秒 10 万至 100 万笔交易

*截至2021年8月25日市场数据

估值部分:价格是否合理?

对于公链而言,链上交易量是一个比较重要的指标,因此我们采用了1)市值/链上交易量及2)完全稀释后市值/链上交易量比率来评估 AVAX 现时的价格是否合理。如下图所示,发现目前 AVAX 的市值/链上交易量及完全稀释后市值/链上交易量比率分别只有47.4及195,与同类币相比是在合理遍低的位置,上升空间较大。

加密货币

链上交易量(日)

市值(亿美元)

完全稀释后市值(亿美元)

市值/链上交易量(/1000)

完全稀释后市值/链上交易量(日)(/1000)

AVAX

194,418

$92.21亿

$379.32亿

47.4

195

ETH

1,247,051

$3,755亿

$3,755亿

301

301

BSC

5,325,125

$833亿

$833亿

15.6

15.6

DOT

9,970

$260亿

$289亿

2608

2,898

 

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