“随着Defi兴起, 作为预言机龙头的Chainlink的潜力远不止于此, 区块链发展愈好,对预言机需求愈大, Defi用户和投资者也正在从中受益”

1. 重点摘要

i. Chainlink是一个通用框架,适用于不同类型的应用, 可以实现无限创新的应用场景, 例如金融数据, 天气数据, 美国大选数据等都可以经Chainlink预言机实现。

ii. Chainlink为确保数据准确度,Chainlink开发出三个智能合约筛选数据和建立了一个可靠高效的机制筛选数据。

iii. Chainlink的机制保证Link币的价格, 数据的请求方(数据买方)和节点操作者(数据卖方)都需要使用Link币来获取彼此所需, 当多个参与者参与时, 保证了Link币的交易量和价格, 从而推高Link币价格。

iv. Chainlink目前是预言机龙头, 区块链市场与现实市场不一样, 一旦区块链上链后, 需要支持高昂费用才能使用改用其他区块链, 因此预言机市场一旦占据了,就很稳固。

v. 多家知名公司与Chainlink合作,当中包括甲骨文 (Oracle), Google。另外中国区块链服务网络(BSN , 中国区块链国家队) 亦将 Chainlink 作为BSN的应用程序获取数据来源。

2. 基本介绍

由于区块链没办法获取外部信息,只能依靠预言机得到信息,所以区块链发展愈好,对预言机需求愈大, Chainlink(LINK)是一个分散的网络,可为智能合约提供信息(oracle)。旨在通过智能合约为链上(数据需求者)解决链下(数据提供者)信息采购问题。

团队

▪ CEO Sergey Nazarov :美国纽约大学学士

▪ 高级技术顾问Ari Juels :康奈尔理工学院雅各布布布研究所的计算机科学教授,也是IC3(加密货币和智能合约倡议)的联合主任。他曾是RSA的首席科学家。

▪ 高级技术顾Evan Cheng: LLVM的创建者之一,LLVM生成了运行所有苹果设备以及谷歌、英伟达和英特尔的低级机器代码。他目前是Novi的工程总监,Novi是Facebook的子公司,开发Libra支付系统

当前状态(2021 年 5 月 7 日星期五)

2.1量化指标: [1]

流通市值(该币种当前流通的量*当前币价)($) 流通量(LINK 币的数目) 上架交易所数 BTC 相关性(使用近七日的币种收盘价格,计算与 BTC 的相关性,越接近 1 正相关度越强,越接近-1 负相关度越强, 0 表示没有相关度)
193.67 亿 4.13亿 171 0.04
24H 成交额($) 24H 流通量 换手率(24H 内的成交额/ 流通市值*100%) 24H 最高 24H 最低 24H 波幅(24H 最 高  – 24H最低)/24H 最低
$53.50亿 1.14亿 27.63% $49.7624 $45.4605 9.46%

3. 技术特点

3.1 数据提供

Chainlink并非单体预言机网络,而是一个通用框架, 框架就像一个骨架,它封装了某领域内处理流程的控制逻辑,通用框架可以在不同类型的应用中使用,从而能构建出无数个去中心化预言机网络,而各个预言机网络并行,互不依赖。

这种框架模式的最大优势是Chainlink节点运营商可以定制节点服务, 节点只需接入所在预言机网络要求的链下资源。比如,Chainlink喂价(defi)网络中的节点只需接入金融市场数据,而不用再接入体育比分、天气等其他不相关的数据。这样做可以降低运行Chainlink节点的门槛,提高预言机的成本效益,也可以进一步使网络去中心化。

Chainlink 通过使用 API 将链上(数据需求者)和链下(数据提供者)联系起来,它通过获取链上资源(如以太坊、比特币和 Hyperledger 等区块链),并通过 API 将其连接到链下(资源(如市场数据、银行支付、零售支付、后端系统、事件数据等)来实现链下数据与链上智能合约的交互,极大丰富去中心化应用的种类,如图所示。[i]

3.2 筛选方法 [2]

Chainlink使用的是一个至少由7个独立节点运营商所组成的去中心化预言机网络。为确保数据准确度,Chainlink开发出三个智能合约筛选数据。

  • ​​​​​​ 声誉合约

检查预言机节点(数据提供者)在预言机服务上的历史服务水平,验证他的真实性和历史表现, 并且淘汰声誉较差或可靠度较低的预言机节点。

  • ​​​​​​​ 订单匹配合约

合约中的数据请求发送到Link节点,并接受节点的竞标, 然后订单匹配合约会选择适当的数量和类型的预言机完成任务。

  • ​​​​​​聚合合约

Chainlink把所选择的全部数据验证并且聚合数据,最后得出一个准确的结果,合并在一起,并把所有Chainlink整理好的数据合并在一起,打包变成智能盒源。

除此之外, Chainlink建立了一个可靠高效的机制筛选数据。Chainlink 发起数据的请求方(买方)需要使用LINK货币来购买Chainlink的节点服务, 节点操作者(卖方)发数据到Chainlink平台上必须先支付LINK货币,而价格会根据用户对数据的需求量还有当时的市场价格来给定价,好的服务会有更多报酬。Chainlink的节点操作者会先用LINK作为保证金来担保他们的服务质量,声誉合约在分配工作时,参考节点保证金额,保证金额较高,被选中可能性愈高。如果节点操作者认为自己的质量好,会交更多保证金,如果数据准确,会给更多LINK作报酬,反之数据不准确,会没收保证金。从而提高整个预言机质量,让整个预言机得到的数据是更加准确。

3.3 应用场景

由于其灵活性极高的预言机框架和数据准确性催生出了许多独立的预言机网络,Chainlink框架可以实现无限创新的应用场景,以下为已经实现的预言机应用场景:[ii]

  • ​​​​​​​ Chainlink喂价:Chainlink喂价为币安,火币Aave和Synthetix等DeFi应用接入加密货币、稳定币、外汇、大宗商品、指数和证券等各类金融市场价格。
  • ​​​​​ 储备金证明:审计锚定法币的稳定币以及跨链资产的储备金,并在链上公布审计报告,帮助DeFi应用抵御抵押率不足的风险,最大程度上减少用户的损失。
  • ​​​​​ 可验证的随机数:PoolTogether等区块链游戏dApp利用Chainlink VRF获得可验证且防篡改的随机数,保障公平且可验证的用户体验。
  • ​​​​天气数据:Arbol接入Chainlink预言机从美国国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)获取天气数据,为发展中国家的农民提供参数型农作物保险,在恶劣天气条件下快速理赔。
  • ​​​​​​美国大选数据:接入Everpedia运行的Chainlink节点,将美联社签名的2020年美国总统大选结果发布到区块链上,并为链上预测市场结算。
  • ​​​​​​ 数据提供商做节点:领先的数据提供商还接入Chainlink框架为多个区块链网络中的智能合约提供加密签名的数据集,并为数据来源提供权威认证。

4. 商业模式

Chainlink的机制保证Link币的价格, 数据的请求方(买方)和节点操作者(卖方)都需要使用Link币来获取彼此所需, 前者使用Link币来支付数据费用,后者需要支付Link币作保证金和收取Link币作报酬。当多个参与者参与时, 保证了Link币的交易量和价格, 从而推高Link币价格。基于这套模式Chainlink价格从 2017年诞生到现在总共上升了511倍。

5. 市场地位

Chainlink目前是预言机龙头, 流通市值与第二名的UMA和第三名REP差距较大,截至2021年5月6日Chainlink的流通市值[iii]为1268.98亿人民币,UMA的流通市值为95.64亿人民币,REP的流通市值为34.15亿人民币。区块链市场与现实市场不一样,当一旦区块链上链后,需要支持高昂费用才能使用改用其他区块链,比如使用币安链后,很难转至Conbase的链上,因此使用了LINK的智能合约,预言机市场一旦占据了,就很稳固。而且不管defi平台和dApp板块如何波动都不会影响Chainlink继续垄断,因为平台和dApp都需要预言机作为数据信道。以下是一些Chainlink合作项目。

  • ​​​​在Web 3.0核心技术栈主要组件中,目前只有Chainlink和Band Protocol作为查询层(Query Layer)代表。另外推动web3.0发展的dApp(去中心化应用程序), 目前只有Band和Chainlink可以完全支持其预言机数据。
  • ​​​​​​一些顶尖的defi数据提供商,如币安,火币,Compound 和 Maker 皆有使用 Chainlink 用于获取币价信息,
  • ​​​Google  cloud 与Chainlink 合作,使Google 的 BigQuery 数据能够输出到以太坊上。
  • ​​​​​甲骨文 (Oracle) 让甲骨文旗下的合格团队使用甲骨文的区块链平台以及 Chainlink 的预言机技术开发解决方案。
  • ​​​​​​中国区块链服务网络(BSN ) 于2020 年 6 月 23 日宣布将 Chainlink 预言机功能引入其网络,使政府和企业能够通过Chainlink 预言机,帮助 BSN 网络中的应用程序获取经过验证的真实数据。
1,290 thoughts on “预言机的龙头 — Chainlink研究分析”
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